The most grievous of these theological problems is the number and disorder of epicletic-type prayers in the canon and the lack of a theology of the part played by the Holy Spirit in the Eucharist. R. And with your spirit. The Armenian Rite, used mainly by the Armenian Apostolic Church, uses currently the Anaphora of St. Athanasius. The Apostolic See will not refuse to consider lawful needs within the Roman Rite and will accord every consideration to the petitions submitted by the conferences of bishops for the possible composition in special circumstances of a new eucharistic prayer and its introduction into the liturgy. As an Italian liturgical scholar puts it: “its use today is so minimal as to be statistically irrelevant”.1. I am to tell you that, all things considered, it is perhaps better to leave the traditional text unchanged; this, however, does not mean that study of the subject is not to continue (Bugnini, p.152, n.30). In addition, the Congregation for Divine Worship was to send a letter to the presidents of the episcopal conferences indicating that each conference could choose one prayer from each category. “The average layman did not realize that 1600 years of tradition had suddenly vanished like a lost civilization, leaving few traces behind, and those of interest only to archaeologists and tourists.”. Notitiae 8 (1972), p.132. f. The definitive approval was given on April 27, 1968. g. The three new Eucharistic Prayers were promulgated by a decree of the Congregation of Rites on May 23, 1968,15 which also determined that the prayers could be used beginning August 15, 1968. h. On the same day, the document “Norms on the Use of Eucharistic Prayers I-IV” was issued.16 Since these norms are not very well known, it is worthwhile to cite them here. 10 Bernard Botte, “Où en est la réforme du Canon de la Messe?“, Les Questions Liturgiques et Paroissiales 49 (1968) 138-141. The progressive tendency of the group is clear. The other three Eucharistic prayers in the Roman Missal are of later origin, and they reflect the historical evolution of the anaphora, or canon, of the Mass in various parts of the Roman Empire. 467-469): 1) Should the number of Eucharistic Prayers in the Roman Missal be increased? CDF did not approve the Alexandrian anaphora (literally, “offering”, another name for the Eucharistic prayer) of Saint Basil because of the theological problem of the epiclesis (invocation of the Holy Spirit). What happened is long in the telling, because the period of liturgical history in question is involved and complex. An Epiclesis can be found before the Institution narrative in the Alexandrian Rite, and this place of the Epiclesis is the standard in the Roman Canon and in the Latin rites. (This norm, in effect, expands the use of this Eucharistic Prayer; the most outstanding distinctive feature referred to being its brevity). Another important source is the anaphora described in the Mystagogical Cathecheses of Theodore of Mopsuestia.[10]. Bugnini, pp. The Eastern Rites know many anaphoras, but each of them is almost completely invariable. He gathers not only the bread and the wine, but the … 28  This volume was published in 1968. E-mail: [email protected]. For the history of the "Roman Canon" see also articles Canon of the Mass, Pre-Tridentine Mass and Tridentine Mass. The Eucharist & Social Justice 10. The earliest evidence of the Roman Canon (4 th century) did not include it. V. The Lord be with you. After laying out the situation concerning privately composed Eucharistic prayers and their abusive nature, the circular letter says: “After all the factors have been fully weighed, the decision is that at this time it is not advisable to grant to the conferences of bishops a general permission to compose or approve new eucharistic prayers. [9] The present Byzantine text of the Anaphora included in the Liturgy of Saint Basil is the final development of this anaphoric family. Phone: (608) 521-0385 220. While it is true that a certain amount of variety helps to retain the interest of the listener, too much variety can be destructive of one of the basic norms of any ritual action: its repeatability. Jungmann’s conclusion: “Thus, when the question of a new canon is posed — and this should not be sought in the first place in a totally new composition, or in the (admittedly not impossible) borrowing of a foreign anaphora, but in a way that the timeless and worthy elements of our own tradition are not abandoned but are purified and further developed — then, for the reasons given, one will not find in Vagaggini’s work the desired solution. He had an audience with Pope Paul on December 21, 1972, in which he explained the position of Divine Worship: the Church was faced “with a widespread phenomenon which, it seems, cannot be handled by simply prohibiting it or by ignoring it, but only by channeling it so that the Holy See can still be in control.” The Pope then stated his decision: “No to any further experiments. The Eucharist as Sacrifice 7. A week or so later, on June 2, 1968, the new president of the Consilium, Cardinal Benno Gut, sent a cover letter to the presidents of episcopal conferences17 along with guidelines to assist catechesis on the anaphoras of the Mass.18. A personal anecdote can illustrate the point nicely. Since the door remained partly ajar, people made bold to knock. The work of Vagaggini was published in book form that same year;11 thus the discussion moved from the restricted circle of the Consilium to the wider public forum, raising the expectations of some and the hackles of others.12. This illuminating account will be presented in three parts. This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 14:45. The Holy Father ordered the schema to be sent to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and the Congregation of Rites (June, 1967). The Roman Canon would be burdensome if recited aloud, because it is always the same; 2. (Hereafter cited as DOL). I find it difficult to isolate a word or phrase in a particular eucharistic prayer. [7] We have next the Anaphora of the Apostolic Tradition, called also the anaphora of Hippolytus, the Liturgy of the seventh book of the Apostolic Constitutions and the Liturgy of the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions that developed in the famous Byzantine Anaphora now part of the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, through the lost Greek version of the Anaphora of the Twelve Apostles (of which we have a later Syrian version). If this applies to homes, it applies all the more to public buildings, which in this century have achieved new heights of ugliness. (*Note: In Eucharistic Prayers I-III, one of dozens of different prefaces can be selected, as appropriate for the liturgical season or the feast being celebrated. From October 1971 to March 1972, this special Study Group met several times, producing a working document of some one hundred pages analyzing the problem and proposing solutions. 5 Karl Amon, “Gratias Agere: Zur Reform des Messcanons“, Liturgisches Jahrbuch 15 (1965) 79-98. The Holy Father was putting the brakes on, but not discouraging further study. 5. It seems more expedient to leave the traditional text of the Canon untouched and to compose from scratch one or more Eucharistic Prayers that would be added to the traditional Canon and used as alternatives to it, even if only for the purpose of having a greater variety of texts (Bugnini, pp. The Flemish-speaking bishops of Belgium did the same, but limited the selection to five (November 1, 1969). As can be seen, not all the modi followed the same line of argument. 21 “Eucharistiae participationem“, Notitiae 9 (1973) 192-201; cf. ", The priest continues with the Anamnesis in that it references Jesus' command, at least implicitly, to "do this in memory of me" and states that the gifts of bread and wine are offered to God in memory of Jesus' life, death, resurrection, and second coming. This anthropological principle — the role of memory — is played out in actual practice: Eucharistic Prayer II and III are used so often that most people have them memorized. What became evident was that the right hand did not know what the left hand was doing. While the people sing a hymn of thanksgiving and supplication, the priest prays the epiclesis. Eucharistic Prayer for Masses for Various Needs and Occasions, usually called the "Swiss Synod" prayer because it originated in the Swiss conference of bishops. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church makes use of no less than 14 official anaphoras. An Extraordinary Answer 10 3. … 31 Es ist nicht nur der ökumenische Zug unserer Zeit, der sich der Denkweise orientalischer Theologie anzunähern bestrebt ist, sondern darüber hinaus — man muss nur Vagagginis Darstellung liturgischer Grundbegriffe vor Augen haben — auch ein gutes Stück persönlicher Theologie des Verfassers.” Josef Jungmann, “Um die Reform des römischen Kanons: eine kritische Stellungnahme zu C. Vagagginis Entwürfen“, Liturgisches Jahrbuch 17 (1967) 11. On January 11, 1973, the Secretary of State communicated CDF’s response to Divine Worship: “The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith has given a negative answer regarding the timeliness of granting the episcopal conferences permission to redact new anaphoras. The liturgical reformers objected to the architectural untidiness of the Roman Canon and wanted to replace it with something more streamlined and functional. Some of the consultors of the Congregation, who had not been polled on these questions, but who felt very strongly about them, published their own findings, coming to quite opposite conclusions, namely that it was inopportune to compose new Eucharistic Prayers in addition to the ones already in the Roman Missal. 3) Is the solution proposed in n. 39a of the schema acceptable? The first reason is quite straightforward. 3 Josef Jungmann, “Um die Reform des römischen Kanons: eine kritische Stellungnahme zu C. Vagagginis Entwürfen“, Liturgisches Jahrbuch 17 (1967) 2. Problems after official promulgation of the new Eucharistic Prayers, One might have expected that the official publication of the new Missal with three new Eucharistic Prayers in addition to the Roman Canon would have put an end to unbridled experimentation. On the contrary the Western Church had for centuries only one anaphora, the Roman Canon, but it has variable parts according to the liturgical year, mainly the Preface. The main currently used anaphoras belonging to this family are the following, divided by rite: The Byzantine Rite uses three anaphoras, which are the core part of the Divine Liturgies which take the same name: The anaphora is introduced with the Opening Dialogue between priest and choir/congregation:[23]. Why did it happen? Eucharistic Prayer I is the 1600 year old Roman Canon, and begins the Institution by saying, “ T he day before He suffered, He took bread in His sacred hands, and looking up to heaven, to You, His Almighty … What Is the Eucharistic Prayer, and What Is So August, Stark, Sacred, Majestic, and Awesome about It Anyway? The Cardinal Prefect’s report to the Secretariat of State, April 12, 1972, was more balanced and modest in tone, but still included the suggestion that episcopal conferences “in extraordinary circumstances, and then case by case” should be given permission to prepare new Eucharistic Prayers. Since I rely heavily on Bugnini’s account of this period and quote him frequently, all citations of his work will henceforth appear in the body of the text. The people remain standing. Certain other requests were turned down, however (cf. In Vagaggini’s book on the Roman canon, prepared for Study Group 10 of the Consilium (the group responsible for implementing the Council’s reform), the basic argument in favor of change is that the Roman canon is marred by serious defects of structure and theology. 2) Because of its distinctive features, Eucharistic Prayer II is better suited to weekdays or to special occasions. Annibale Bugnini, the chairman of the Consilium, reports what happened: As a result of Father Bugnini’s visit to the Netherlands, a special committee was set up to examine some anaphoras sent by the [Dutch] liturgical commission. It is appropriate that the commemoration of the … Cassian studied music before joining the monastic community of Saint Meinrad in 1974. R. It is right and just. As Bugnini reports, “the Pope’s decision was brief and to the point: ‘The present anaphora is to be left unchanged; two or three anaphoras for use at particular specified times are to be composed or looked for. The earlier liturgical texts related to the celebration of the Eucharist are the chapters 9 and 10 of the Didache, even though there is no consensus among scholars if these texts are meant to be a Eucharist or not. And the shortest Eucharistic Prayer is II. Agitation for creating new alternatives to the Roman Canon was intensifying especially in Holland, and new prayers were published by Dutch and Flemish bishops and used without authorization from Rome. The most important and currently used anaphorae (Qudashe) of the East Syriac Rite (Babylonian Rite) are the following:[25]. Eucharistic Prayer IV, however, should always be used with the preface printed above.) 3) Is it enough that the Holy See should provide some models to be adapted by the episcopal conferences? This published report aroused alarm in various quarters, including the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, and much controversy ensued. 470-471). 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