Both the Arctic and the Antarctic are vast and remote, considered the last untamed wildernesses in the world. If you were to stand at either pole, the view would be superficially very similar, there would be a great expanse of flat (ish) white snow and ice as far as the eye can see with few or no other features to break up the vista. The Arctic Tern could really be called the Arctic-Antarctic Tern. Walruses forage on the seafloor, diving to depths up to 180 meters (590 feet) for clams, cockles, and mussels. The blooms of algae and phytoplankton feed zooplankton and larger predators, which are themselves in turn eaten, and so on up the food chain. The sea-ice closer to land and attached to the shoreline is called fast ice (short for fastened). Then they dig out their prey using the tough edges of their noses, similar to how pigs root around in dirt and grass. Another simple difference to remember each by… the Arctic has Polar Bears and the Antarctic has Penguins! The Arctic and the Antarctic regions, however, are very different, with separate geopolitical and strategic considerations. It is an Ocean entirely surrounded by land. Imagine it being 40 degrees below zero (Fahrenheit and Celsius are equal at this temperature!) Antarctica is almost entirely covered by ice sheets up to two miles (3 km) thick, which contain roughly 70% of the world’s freshwater. Penguins live in the Antarctic. The environments at the poles are some of the harshest on Earth—yet animals have found ways to survive there against the odds. A narwhal is a toothed whale and is closely related to dolphins, porpoises, and orcas. A summertime channel carries melted ice to the sea. There is a large amount of variability in climate across the Arctic, but all regions experience extremes of solar radiation in both summer and winter. But even they struggle to survive the winter. Warmer temperatures also cause sea level to rise and melt the permafrost, or frozen soil. 2 Fierce snow storms are called _____. When choosing polar destinations, Antarctica is often top of mind for many people but the Arctic offers distinct and incredible travel experiences. The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are the only ice sheets currently on Earth, and they contain 75 percent of the freshwater in the world. Without sea ice, hunting has become significantly harder. Sea ice is by definition made from frozen seawater, which gives it different properties than ice made of freshwater. This protein is also found in a group of more than 120 fish that live in the Southern Ocean. Introduction: I have always been extremely fascinated and curious about the two locations I chose to present for my final project :the Arctic and the Antarctic, also known as the North Pole and the South Pole. Due to the fact that the Arctic is actually a frozen ocean, if you want to trek to the North Pole then you’d have to attempt it in the winter months. Schrijf een review. Weddell Seals live year round in the frigid waters of the Southern Ocean. They are Recent studies in the Ross Sea suggest the loud vocalizations may be used to stun prey. A stormy sea lashes the village of Shismaref, Alaska, where the coastline has eroded 30–90 m (100–300 ft) in the past 30 years. I was born in the capital of Greenland, Nuuk in ‘86 and grew up at the polar circle in the town Sisimiut. The Arctic and Antarctic may be polar opposites, but in one sense they are connected despite being thousands of kilometres apart. They have no hemoglobin—the oxygen-carrying protein that makes red blood cells red. blizzards dog sled glaciers mammals polar regions 1 The most northerly and most southerly points on Earth are called _____. You can use this mini book, along with all the other printables, to consolidate the learning. This is crucial not only from an ownership perspective, but also helps explain why and how the regions differ in their climate, geography and native species. Over the years, vast amounts of data have been collected about the Arctic and Antarctic ice. It seems an almost impossible feat for a plant to survive in Antarctica. A polar bear and its cub in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. COVID-19. Most of the Antarctic ice sheet is likely to thicken as a result of increased precipitation. The U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy is a ship with a primary mission to serve as a research platform in the Arctic. At both poles, tiny animals, called zooplankton, are near the base of the food chain. The name arctic is originally originated from the Greek name, Arktikos meaning “of the north. A thick layer of blubber keeps walruses warm in the Arctic. Martin Sharp/University of Alberta. Although both are icy and frigid, the poles are actually more different than you might expect. These pods act like wolf packs - working together to take down prey, including seals and larger whales. In the absence of hemoglobin the gills of ice fish appear white. "The ocean is eating up our land," says Esther Iyatunguk. Small shelled creatures, like pteropods, which are important food sources for fish and larger animals, are already losing their shells in the Antarctic due to ocean acidification. It is an Ocean entirely surrounded by land. Unlike the Arctic, this is a massive land with 98% made up of ice. But researchers have also found that the ice crystals don’t go away during the warmer summer months—one of the implications of living below the ice. This dense, salty water sinks and travels towards warmer tropical waters along the seafloor, forming part of the ocean’s great circulating “conveyer belt”. Both the Arctic and Antarctic are solid ice, with snow on top. Smaller populations live off the eastern coast of Greenland as well. Antarctica is a continent devoid of human settlement, except for the over 50 research stations built there by 27 different countries. But, overall the land- and fresh-water based ice continues to shrink. Summers are still somewhat frozen (though, thanks to global warming, increasingly less so), but endlessly bright. She did her research with it and the poetry is fantastic. The Ross Sea, a 1.9 million square mile (3.6 million square km) stretch of ocean off the coast of Antarctica, has been nicknamed “The Last Ocean.” In 2008, researchers mapped out human impacts on the ocean globally and this small area of the Southern Ocean proved to be the most pristine piece of the ocean left on Earth. Our team reached out to various academic, military, political, and NGO leaders to curate a collection of short responses to the question: What are the key challenges posed […] It is land ice that, as it melts, contributes to sea-level rise. The Arctic Circle is at a latitude of 66.5 degrees north of the Equator. That's a journey of about 40,000 km (25,000 miles), often made in less than four months. Remember, the colours and in this case fur is all just speculation. A view of McMurdo Station with a frozen Ross Sea in the background. Scientists also use ice cores to gain insight into the Earth’s ancient atmosphere. These data are essential for scientists and policymakers seeking to … Polar oceans are too cold for most life. Delen. It has polluted and even destroys the life in it. The mainstay of the Shishmaref diet is the bearded seal. Key Difference: The most obvious difference between Antarctic and Arctic is that Antarctic is located in the southern hemisphere and encompasses the South Pole region, whereas Arctic is located in the northern hemisphere and encompasses the North Pole region. The people that live here are mostly scientists and technicians engaged in research. Both the Arctic and Antarctic have plenty of ice and possess an intricate unique and ancient beauty. Orcas travel in pods of up to 40 related individuals. Scientists are just beginning to understand who eats whom in the polar oceans. Arctic Cod are critical players in the Arctic food web. The distance between the two polar regions is 20,117 kms (12,500 mi). Second, let’s discuss the cruising. If you want to get beyond fiction/nonfiction, there is an amazing book of poetry by Elizabeth Bradfield called Approaching the Ice. You find penguins in the Antarctic but not in the arctic. They float with most of their mass below the water, hence the expression “tip of the iceberg”. Emperor penguins are the largest of the penguin species and can grow to be 100 pounds. It's warming at twice the rate of the rest of the planet. Use a craft knife, or scissors, to also cut along the darker-shaded line in the centre of the book. The Antarctic or the south-pole is what is below you. • Antarctica is a continent surrounded by the world’s stormiest seas. The longest tusks can reach over eight feet long (2.4 meters). Your email address will not be published. Fish have certain adaptations, like blood with built-in antifreeze, to survive in the Antarctic. Antarctica is isolated from the rest of the continents by the Circumpolar Current, which swirls clockwise around the landmass. • Appearance: • Antarctic region contains Antarctica, island territories that are situated in the Southern Ocean, and floating ice sheets on ocean. For people who live in the Arctic, weather and hunting grounds are becoming more unpredictable. Found throughout the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Asia, Europe, and North America, this seabird is among the most common Arctic animals on this list. That way they avoid turbulence. Global temperatures have increased since the 1800s, and sea ice has been decreasing in extent and thickness. Variations in Extent. The increased global warming has taken its toll on the regions. The Inupiaq people of Alaska have more than 100 words for different kinds of sea ice, illustrated here. Sea ice forms during the winter, more than doubling the size of the Antarctic continent, and then melts in the spring and summer. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Now it's down to just 10 percent and the Arctic may have ice-free summers by the end of the 21st century. The female penguins leave the males to protect their one egg and cope with wind chill temperatures of -60°C (-76°F). A 2018 study found that 10.7 percent of Antarctica's coastal glaciers are in retreat. and not shivering. The Arctic is what above you when you take a glob. They eat the photosynthesizing phytoplankton and in turn are food for fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Unlike the north, it is a continent entirely surrounded by the ocean. McMurdo Station is the hub of the U.S. Antarctic Program. But even is such temperatures there had been evidence that people lived in lad around that area for thousands of years. This prevents temperatures in the Arctic regions from reaching the extremes typical of the land surface of Antarctica. September is the month with the smallest amount of Arctic sea ice, called the “sea ice minimum.” Scientists compare annual September Arctic sea ice measurements to learn about the rate of decline. A narwhal breaching the water's surface, his tusk points to the sky. Unlike the Antarctic, which is governed in part by a multinational treaty, there is no treaty currently for the Arctic polar region. In the winter narwhals live offshore among the ice floes, but in the summer, when the ice melts, they migrate towards the shore and congregate in summering grounds. it also provides the information about different aspects like living isolation, empty location and arctic feasible , north pole etc. In fact, polar bears are more concerned about overheating than about getting cold. While all males have a tusk, only 15 percent of females have a tusk, leading scientists to believe it has a role in sexual selection. An ice-free Arctic could mean a new trade route—a Northwest Passage connecting Europe to Asia - bypassing both the Panama and Suez canals. Both the Arctic and the Antarctic are vast and remote, considered the last untamed wildernesses in the world. In the northern polar region, the water and ice of the Arctic Ocean are surrounded by land. Even in the twenty-four-hour light of summer, the multi-year sea ice can be nearly 2 meters thick and the ship's job is to cut right through the ice, no matter its thickness. The Arctic Circle is made up of the Arctic Ocean and the North Pole, which is located in the centre of the circle. Pack ice is also referred to as drift ice because it is not attached to a shoreline and can be moved by the wind and ocean currents. Land is being lost, along with animals that provide food for the people living in the Arctic. There are roughly 172,000 of them swimming in the Arctic today. We are going to plan a trip to … The dark sea floor of the Antarctic, beneath sea ice, is covered with life. Because it is an ocean covered in floating parts of ice. But because the ocean is over 14000 feet deep. • Arctic is the region on the top-most corner of the globe while Antarctic at the bottom most corner. Antarctic and Arctic ice - Antarctic ice is predominantly annual. When sleeping and resting, Weddell seals may remain in the same spot for hours, melting a hollow in the ice underneath them with their own body heat. The day I arrived on the western Antarctic peninsula, it seemed that the land herself … Arctic and Antarctic Museum The dramatic story of Russian and Soviet polar exploration unfolds before visitors to this museum. Many different types of ice can be found in the Arctic and Antarctic. Because they are such strong swimmers, polar bears earned the species name of Ursus maritimus—bears of the sea. Your email address will not be published. Polar bears are threatened by the loss of sea ice in the Arctic. Thomas Cook India and its group company, SOTC Travel, have introduced exclusive luxury cruise holidays to the polar extremes of the Arctic and Antarctic. A dive tender monitors the line connected to ice divers studying creatures living on the under-side of the sea ice. Both poles carry some similarities but they are not at all the same. Remember, the colours and in this case fur is all just speculation. Ironically, the ships that bring nature-loving tourists may also unwittingly be bringing invasive species, such as plant spores and rodents that could damage the fragile Antarctic ecosystem. (R. Hopcroft, UAF, Hidden Ocean 2005 NOAA. That is Arctic is at the North pole and Antarctic at the South pole. They live and travel in pods that range in size from a few narwhals to several hundred individuals, but in the summertime, the congregations can be in the thousands. All QuillDogs of this litter are rated rare. Orcas stay put in their distinctive ecosystems, and there are different characteristics of the groups (or pods) in various locations. Second, remember that the Arctic is really a frozen ocean. From Shishmaref to Sachs Harbour, Canada, Arctic communities are on the frontlines of climate change. Understanding the function of the tusk is an ongoing area of investigation. This imaginary circle is the southernmost latitude in the Northern Hemisphere where the sun can remain above or below the horizon for 24 hours (June 21st and December 21st). In the Arctic, some of the sea ice stays throughout the year, called multi-year ice. We all know that we are sandwiched between two extremely cold regions in the north and in the south. Because of these massive changes, the whole Arctic Ocean ecosystem will see impacts, from microscopic algae to massive polar bears to the people who call the Arctic home. The Southern Ocean has also become a draw for ecotourists who seek to visit places where humans are far outnumbered by penguins. Why it’s so amazing- cold weather adaptations It might not seem super special, but that fact that dinosaurs have been found in areas that used to have an Arctic-like climate is actually pretty ground-breaking. Antarctica - Antarctica - Physical geography: The geologic evolution of Antarctica has followed a course similar to that of the other southern continents. If fishing on a massive scale expands to the Ross Sea, the dynamic balance of this fragile ecosystem could fall apart. Its formation begins in very cold water surrounded by thicker sea ice or land with a slushy mix of water and ice crystals on the sea surface, called frazil ice. Antarctica and Greenland lose around 350 billion tons of ice each year from such melting. The Smithsonian possesses one of the world's finest anthropological collections from arctic and sub-arctic regions. But to get on to the North Pole will need a boat. The winter in the North Pole usually reaches up to around -40 degrees census. We all know that we are sandwiched between two extremely cold regions in the north and in the south. This makes sense when you get to know about the southernmost part of our world. Glacial ice forms on land, and is made of freshwater snow packed down tightly over many years. We can help arrange flights at your request, or provide information to help your travel agent find flights that work with your itinerary. The total area of perennial ice is barely 0.02 million km2 here, and two-year-olds - 2.4 million km2. Arctic and Antarctic ice loss will account for about one-fifth of the warming that is projected to happen in the tropics, according to a new study led by Mark England, a … They are the largest of the dolphins, and powerful predators. These seals do not migrate and are commonly found within a few miles of their birthplace. Yet, the rainfall is so low, it is considered as a desert. Early Eskimos, known as Groswater Dorset, occupied the Gulf of St. Lawrence about 2,500 years ago. Since the ice has disappeared the warmer, saltier Atlantic water is able to move northward. Ice can be classified by age, whether it is made from fresh or salt water, or by its ever-changing forms. Ice can be classified by age, whether it is made from fresh or salt water, or by its ever-changing forms. Parts of these countries can also be found in the Arctic Circle: Russia, Canada, Alaska (USA), Iceland, Finland, Sweden, Norway and Greenland. The Plants of Antarctica. Icebergs are formed when chunks of glacial ice break off (called calving) from an ice sheet or shelf. The Arctic and Antarctic have kept our world in place for so long that it is our duty now to keep it that way. No human has ever managed to reach the South Pole and come back safely till 1911 when Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen finally managed to take a team of 5. For thousands of years, the people in the Arctic have adapted to living in an ice-bound environment. They take turns moving into the center of the crowd to warm up and then trading places with a penguin on the cold perimeter. From the first days of polar navigation in the Russian Far North to the modern-day research stations in Antarctica, the breathtaking achievements of scientists and travelers are covered in great detail and illustrated with authentic artifacts. Many different types of ice can be found in the Arctic and Antarctic. Then a film of ice forms, called grease ice, named for its close resemblance to the look of an oil slick on water. Exactly how climate change will affect the Arctic is hard to predict. The graph is provided by the. They eat small crustaceans, such as amphipods and copepods. Antarctic and … This is especially important now that humans are emitting carbon dioxide at an unprecedented rate (see Threats to the Poles section). Glaciers, icebergs and ice sheets are all formed from glacial ice. Effectively, I remember hearing about their unique day length, especially during the winter and summer solstices, and I remember asking… Required fields are marked *. Polar bears have two layers of fur, plus a layer of blubber to keep them warm in the coldest weather, and black skin to absorb the heat. Knowledge of the environment that has served generations is being defied by a changing climate. In the Antarctic, the only human residents are scientists and technicians at isolated research stations whose food must be shipped in by boat. The researchers developed an algorithm that learns how to identify objects and patterns within the Arctic and Antarctic data. Remember me. The Arctic is what above you when you take a glob. Why it’s so amazing- cold weather adaptations It might not seem super special, but that fact that dinosaurs have been found in areas that used to have an Arctic-like climate is actually pretty ground-breaking. They act as climate controllers for the whole world and play a significant role in maintaining the ecosystem steady. The male penguins huddle together and keep the egg warm by balancing it on their feet and covering it with their skin. More than 11,000 kilometers (6835 miles) separate the Arctic from the Southern Ocean. A cold desolate continent covered in miles of ice and snow year-round, the south pole of … Right now, it is decreasing 12.8 percent each decade. When choosing polar destinations, Antarctica is often top of mind for many people but the Arctic offers distinct and incredible travel experiences. The nutrients cultivate blooms of phytoplankton and ice-algae, which feed a super-abundant supply of Antarctic krill, small shrimp-like crustaceans. Productbeschrijving. They use highly sensitive whiskers on their snouts to locate food. In years past, thicker ice was about 40 percent of total ice cover. Antarctica and the Arctic are polar opposites in more than just location. Ice loss, permafrost thaw, fires: Trouble in the Arctic and Antarctic could cause shocks to the world’s weather and sea levels sooner than thought, says a new study. A female walrus and her calf (, (The Wales Inupiaq Sea Ice Dictionary, courtesy of Igor Krupnik (NMNH)). There are some arctic artic jokes no one knows (to tell your friends) and to make you laugh out loud.Take your time to read those puns and riddles where you ask a question with answers, or where the setup is the punchline. Northwest Passage connecting Europe to Asia - bypassing both the Arctic is what above you when you a. Sheets are all formed from glacial ice break off ( called calving ) from an ice sheet or.! Form ice shelves increased global warming has taken its toll on the region! ) my name, email, and two-year-olds - 2.4 million km2 in size each year from such melting,! Of narwhals lives in Baffin Bay, which gives it different properties than ice made of.. 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